London (including Inner London and Outer London) is in the South East of England. It has a population of around 8,170,000 and covers approximately 157,000 hectares. Here is a list of nearby or neighbouring counties: Berkshire, Buckinghamshire, Essex, Hertfordshire, Kent, Middlesex, Surrey.
London is the capital city of England and the UK and its history has been largely shaped by the River Thames which runs though it. There is evidence of human occupation in the area dating back over six thousand years. However the first recorded major settlement was Londinium which was built by the Romans, destroyed by Celtic Queen Boudicea and the Iceni tribe and rebuilt to became the capital of the Roman province of Britannia. Centuries of decline followed the fall of Rome and invasion by Anglo Saxons, Vikings and Normans. Within the ancient walls of Londinium, the Medieval city of London was later established, which became the capital again and grew into a wealthy trading and financial centre. Visitors to the Museum of London can see exhibits which tell the story of the development of London from prehistory through to the modern day.London is among the worlds most cosmopolitan cities and within it can be found a great diversity of people and cultures from across the globe. The term Greater London is now used to describe the old city and the surrounding 32 boroughs, which are surrounded by the home counties from where many of the capitals workers commute. The cities public transport network of buses, overground and underground trains is among the oldest and largest systems in the world and its airports the busiest. The capital is a global leader in areas such as finance, fashion, the arts, education and media and has long attracted people looking for success in their chosen field. Over the centuries some of them have dropped or thrown artefacts into the River Thames and some have since been found on its banks, including coins, pottery, jewellery and glass.There are more than 200 galleries and museums in London, housing some the worlds most important cultural treasures, which attract millions of visitors each year. The British Museum has millions of items in its collection, representing human civilisation from across the world dating back through thousands of years of history, including sculptures, paintings, prints, books, jewellery, coins and pottery. The Victoria and Albert Museum has the worlds largest collection of decorative art and design, with exhibits from many countries, including textiles, costumes, furniture, photography, sculpture, ceramics, glass and metalwork. The National Gallery, located in Trafalgar Square, has a collection of thousands of paintings and drawings, from Medieval, to Renaissance and Impressionist. There are many important works by great artists, such as Botticelli, Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Raphael, Titian, Caravaggio, Rembrandt, Canaletto, Turner, Constable, Degas, Cezanne, Monet and Van Gogh. Tate Modern is in what was once the Bankside Power Station and the galleries collection of contemporary and modern art includes work by artists such as Pablo Picasso, Auguste Rodin, Salvador Dali, Henri Matisse, Francis Bacon, Jackson Pollock, Andy Warhol and Damien Hirst.There is a great variety to the architecture of London, although most buildings in the centre of the city were constructed after the Great Fire of 1666. Among the cities many iconic buildings are Buckingham Palace, St Pauls Cathedral, Tower Bridge and the Elizabeth Tower which houses Big Ben. There are four World Heritage Sites, which are Kew Gardens, the Tower of London, Greenwich and the site of Westminster Abbey and the Palace of Westminster. London has a rich cultural and social life, with many theatres, concert venues, pubs, clubs and parks of various sizes, that provide a venue for a wide range of events as well as a place to relax away from the busy city streets. Works of literature created by writers such as Samuel Pepys and Charles Dickens have been set in London and many television programmes and movies have been filmed in the city. Those wanting to experience something of Tudor England, can travel out to the Borough of Richmond upon Thames, to visit Hampton Court Palace which was built during the 16th century and became a Royal residence of among others Henry VIII and Charles I.